Borg-Warner Automatic Transmission

Important note:
Although the handling of the Borg-Warner Automatic Transmission is quickly and easily acquired, owners who have not previously used this type of transmission should read carefully the following instructions so as to ensure that they obtain the best results from the car.

General description of transmission
The conventional clutch and gearbox of a normal manual transmission are completely replaced by an Automatic gearbox consisting of a torque converter and gears operated hydraulically providing three forward ratios termed 'Low', 'Intermediate' and 'Direct' and also a 'Reverse' gear.
Instead of the normal gear lever there is a small selector lever placed under the steering wheel. The actual gear engaged depends not only on the position of this selector lever but also upon the extent to which the accelerator pedal is depressed and upon the speed of the car. Initial setting of the gear selector lever is all that is required and necessary changes of gear, both upwards and downwards, will be made automatically.
The transmission also provides a special 'Hill-hold" arrangement to prevent the car from rolling backwards when momentarily stopped on an incline with the engine running, thus obviating the use of hand or foot brake under such conditions.

General description of controls
In addition to the accelerator pedal there are two controls:
(a) The selector lever
(b) The intermediate gear hold switch.

The selector lever (27) (26)
The selector lever moves through a series of positions shown by
means of a pointer on a dial, the various positions being marked with the letters 'P', 'N', 'D', 'L', 'R'.
The selector lever falls naturally to the position 'N' or and to engage 'P'. 'L' or 'R' the lever must be lifted towards the steering wheel and then moved upwards or downwards according to the position required.

Selector lever and quadrant. A: Selector leaver. B: Second gear hold switch

The letters referred to above for the selector lever represent the following:-

'P '-Park. This means that the transmission is in a neutral condition but that the transmission is mechanically locked so that the car cannot roll forwards or backwards. A safety device is fitted to prevent this mechanical lock being engaged at speeds over approximately 5 m.p.h. (8 k.p.h.). The selector lever must be placed in this position or in 'N' before attempting to start the engine.

'N'-Means 'Neutral'. The transmission is completely disengaged and there is no drive but the car is free to move. The selector lever must be placed in this position or in 'P' before attempting to start the engine.

'D'-Means 'Drive'. The selector lever is placed in this position for normal driving.
When in this position either 'Low' or 'Intermediate' or 'Direct' gear will be engaged7 depending upon the speed of the vehicle and the extent to which the accelerator pedal is depressed.

'L'-Means 'Low'. The transmission cannot change into a higher gear as long as the selector lever is left in 'U. Whilst in this position the engine provides positive over-run braking, but the brakes must be used to prevent the car running backwards when temporarily stopped on a hill, since the hill-hold arrangement does not then operate.

'R'-Means 'Reverse'. A safety device is provided to prevent 'Reverse' gear from being engaged when the car is travelling in a forward direction at a speed in excess of 3 m.p.h. (4 k.p.h.).

Intermediate (2nd) Gear Hold (29) (30)
The intermediate gear hold is solenoid operated and controlled by a switch under the steering wheel on the lower side of the shroud. To engage intermediategear press the lever down. The F2 control is only effective when the selector lever is set to 'D'.
The purpose of this control is to retain the Intermediate gear in operation and to prevent upward changes into Direct gear until higher speeds are reached than those at which such changes would normally take place.
Use of this control does not increase over-run braking.

Driving the car

To start the engine
Ensure that the selector lever is in either the 'P' or 'N' position and the handbrake on. Then operate the combined ignition and starter switch.
As a safety measure an isolation switch prevents the starter being operated when the selector lever is set to any other position.
In cold weather it may be found necessary to keep the combined choke and fast idle control pulled out slightly when first starting to ensure even running of the engine.

Note: For manual starting see note at the end of this Section.

Normal driving-selector lever set to 'D'
With the engine started and idling easily, move the selector lever to the 'D' position, release the handbrake and depress the accelerator pedal.
The car will move forward controlled by the accelerator pedal and gear changes, both up and down, will occur automatically. The harder the accelerator pedal is depressed the faster the car will go before automatically changing up into a higher gear.

If whilst cruising more rapid acceleration is required for overtaking purposes, sharp depression of the accelerator pedal beyond its normal full travel to what is termed the 'kick-down' position will cause the transmission to change into a lower gear.

The easing back of the accelerator pedal will cause the transmission to change up again.
The 'Hill-hold' arrangement already referred to above will prevent the car from running backwards when momentarily stopped on a hill with the engine running without the necessity of using either foot or hand brake.

The following three paragraphs provide, for those who wish it, a slightly fuller explanation.
If the car is moving away from rest with the accelerator slightly depressed the car will start in 'Intermediate' gear and an up change will occur into direct drive at between 17-21 m.p.h.
(27-33 k.p.h.). If, however, the accelerator pedal is depressed to its normal full travel the car will move off in' Low' gear with maximum acceleration. Under these conditions of acceleration the change from 'Low' to 'Intermediate' will be delayed up to 20-25 m.p.h. (32-40 k.p.h.), and the change from 'Intermediate' to 'Direct' drive will be delayed up to approximately 44-49 m.p.h. (70-78 k.p.h.).

Should the accelerator pedal be depressed beyond the normal full travel position into what is termed the 'kick-down' position upward gear changes will be delayed still further.
The 'Low' to 'Intermediate' change will take place at from 28-32 m.p.h. (45-5 1 k.p.h.), and the 'Intermediate' to 'Direct' drive change at approximately 55-65 m.p.h. (88-104 k.p.h.), unless the accelerator pedal is released before this speed is reached, whereupon 'Direct' drive will automatically be engaged.

At speeds below 21 m.p.h. (33 k.p.h.) the transmission will automatically change into 'Intermediate' if pressure on the accelerator pedal is released or almost completely released.

Changes down from 'Direct' drive into 'Intermediate' may, however, be made at speeds below approximately 40 m.p.h. (64 k.p.h.) according to depression of the accelerator pedal and if pushed into the 'kick-down' position at speeds below approximately 55 m.p.h, (88 k.p.h.). At no time will the transmission permit speeds in excess of 60-65 m.p.h. (96-104 k.p.h.) to be maintained in 'Intermediate' gear. In a similar manner if the transmission is operating in 'Intermediate' gear at speeds below approximately 18 m.p.h. (28 k.p.h.) it is possible to engage first gear by depressing the accelerator pedal to the 'kick-down position.

Use of Low gear-selector lever set to 'L'
With the selector lever set in the 'L' position, the transmission is held in 'Low' gear and regardless of the speed reached by the car no upward gear changes will take place. Also positive braking is provided by the engine when the accelerator is eased back.

The 'U position is accordingly particularly useful in the following conditions:-
(a) For unusually long and steep gradients and descents where a low gear and engine braking are desirable.
(b) Where hard pulling may be encountered, as in deep snow or heavy mud.
(c) Where the car becomes stuck in sand, snow or mud. In such conditions it may be possible to rock it out by gently depressing the accelerator pedal and quickly moving the selector lever between 'L' and 'R' and back again a few times.

If the car is moving and low gear is no longer required, the selector lever can be moved from the 'U to the 'D' position, whereupon upward changes to 'Intermediate' and 'Direct' drive will be made in the normal way.

On the other hand the selector lever must not be moved from 'D' to 'U until the car speed has been reduced to below 40 m.p.h. (64 k.p.h.). Under these conditions the engine should be speeded up by the depression of the accelerator pedal in exactly the same way as when making a downward change on a manually operated synchromesh gearbox. If the selector lever is moved, as above, at speeds exceeding 40 m.p.h. (64 k.p.h.) the car will slow down very suddenly and there is a grave risk of damage to the engine.

Use of Reverse gear.
When preparing to reverse the car, the engine should be allowed to idle and the selector lever moved into the 'W (Reverse) position. The handbrake should then be released and the accelerator pedal gently depressed. If the 'W (Reverse) position be inadvertently selected whilst the car is moving forward, a hydraulic interlock prevents it becoming effective till the road speed drops to approximately 3 m.p.h. (4 k.p.h.).

Parking the car
Always park with the selector lever in the 'P' (Park) position. In addition the handbrake should always be applied when leaving the car unattended. When parking on a gradient apply the hand-brake before engaging 'P' (Park) and disengage 'P' before releasing the handbrake. If the foregoing instruction is disregarded some difficulty may be experienced in attempting to drive off owing to the parking pawl being locked into position on the mainshaft gear and consequently being difficult to release. In such cases select the gear that will allow the car to be moved gently up the gradient and as soon as the car moves, the parking pawl will instantly disengage and then the selector lever can be placed in the appropriate position to move the car in the desired direction.

Use of Intermediate gear hold
Under normal driving conditions, the 'Intermediate' gear hold will not be required, but it is provided to meet certain specific conditions.
The control is operated by the switch under the steering wheel at the lower side of the shroud, To engage press switch down. Intermediate hold can be switched on or off at any speed regardless of whether the engine is pulling or not,
As already explained, this control is only effective when the selector lever is set to 'D'. With the switch down, the transmission will not change up into 'Direct' drive under 60-65 m.p.h. (96-104 k.p.h.) Should it be considered desirable to change up into 'Direct' drive at lower speeds than those quoted above, a simple adjustment can be made to the hold mechanism by your local Distributor or Dealer, which allows the transmission to change up into 4Direct' drive at 37-44 m.p.h. (59-70 k.p.h,).
The use of the 'Intermediate' gear hold is accordingly particularly advised in the following conditions:-

(a) Where the car is being driven up steep and winding gradients at speeds below 60 m.p.h. (96 k.p.h.) or 37-44 m.p.h. (59-70 k.p.h.) see above.
In the above case the use of 'Intermediate' gear hold prevents frequent changes between 'Direct' and 'Intermediate' gears occasioned by variations in the speed of the car.
(b) Where the car is being driven slowly, but it is desirable to maintain reasonable engine speed so that the dynamo may balance the heavy electrical load placed upon it by lights, windscreen wiper, heater, etc.-e.g. in foggy conditions at night.
(c) To select a lower gear range when overtaking.
It should be noted that when the intermediate hold is in operation, starts from rest are automatically made in 'Low' gear. Also the 'Hill-hold' arrangement previously referred to, which prevents the car from rolling backwards when momentarily stopped on an incline, will not function.

Prolonged idling
Prolonged idling is sometimes unavoidable and some drivers make a practice of warming-up their engines before starting a journey. In all such cases it is advisable to set the selector lever to either the 'P' or 'N' positions. If the lever is set in any other position, and the handbrake is not firmly applied, the car may tend to 'creep' since it will in fact be in gear. In such circumstances there is also a risk of the accelerator pedal being accidentally depressed, thereby causing the car to move suddenly.

Special Note: for manual starting, Automatic Transmission

With the starting handle
(a) Before attempting to start the engine with the starting handle, switch on the ignition, ensure that the selector lever is set to 'P' and the handbrake is hard on.
In such circumstances the isolation switch is ineffective and unless the selector lever is set to 'P' there is a danger that the car might 'creep' forward, thereby causing injury.
Emergency starting
(b) In the unlikely event of it being necessary to start the engine by means other than the above, this may be done by pushing or towing the car. The ignition should be switched 'on' and the selector lever placed in the 'D' position. The car may then be pushed from behind or towed and the engine should start when it reaches a speed of 25 m,p.h. (40 k.p.h.).
For towing, use a rope of sufficient length, and exercise the usual care to avoid colliding with the leading vehicle.

Starting procedure: 4-speed and Automatic Transmission
1. Ensure that the gear lever is in the neutral position.
2. Borg-Warner automatic transmission. Ensure that the selector lever is either in the Neutral or Park position; the engine will not start until this is so.
3. Set the cold start control:
(a) Right out if the engine is cold;
(b) In a fast idling position if the engine is warm;. the fast idle position, about 0.625 in. (17 mm) out, can be felt as the point at which the load necessary to pull out the control becomes greater. It can also be seen, if the engine is warm, as the point at which the cold start control warning light goes out when the control is pushed in;
(c) Right in if the engine is hot;
(d) With a very hot engine it may be necessary to slightly depress the accelerator pedal when starting.

4. Switch on the ignition, check that the green oil pressure and red ignition warning lights appear.
5. Turn the ignition key in a clockwise direction, when the engine should start after a turn or two. The key will automatically return to the 'on' position on release.
If the engine makes a false start, allow the starter to come to rest before operating the switch again. Should the engine fail to start after two or three attempts, investigate and correct the cause before the battery is run down needlessly.

When the engine starts
Push the cold start control in progressively as the engine warms up, and right in as soon as the engine temperature will permit.
Do not race the engine; drive away at a moderate speed immediately after starting, so stimulating lubrication of the cylinder walls as the engine warms up.
Illumination of the amber warning light on the instrument panel will indicate that the control has been left out inadvertently and must be pushed in at once, at least to the fast idle position, or fully in as soon as the engine will idle satisfactorily.

Running-in period
Progressive running-in of your new car is of the utmost importance and has a direct bearing on durability and smooth running throughout its life. The running-in speeds which follow, apply on 4-speed models, to normal top gear drive, not overdrive.
The running-in period is 500 miles (750 kin), during which time 35-40 m.p.h. (55-65 k.p.h.) or 2,000 r.p.m. should not be exceeded. The engine must not be allowed to labour at any time and full use should be made of the indirect gears to ensure that full throttle is not used even to achieve 40 m.p.h. (65 k.p.h.). On cars fitted with automatic transmission, gentle progressive use of the throttle should be made. If the car is driven in Low at any time when new, 15 m.p.h. (25 k.p.h.) or 2,000 r.p.m. should not be exceeded before changing into Drive.

Thereafter, maximum speeds may be increased gradually, but the car should not be driven at prolonged high speeds until it has done 1,000 miles (1.500 km.).
On cars fitted with Borg-Warner Automatic transmission, a speed of 105 m.p.h. (168 k.p.h.) or 5,000 r.p.m. must not be exceeded, otherwise serious damage to the engine may result.
The markings on the speedometer and tachometer faces are for the purpose of drawing attention to this point.
The reason for this limitation is that the axle ratio has been chosen to give the best overall performance suited to the majority of requirements.

Recommended lubricants
The Rover Company attaches very great importance to the nature of the lubricants used in its products and therefore maintains lists of those which it recommends.
Full details of Rover recommended lubricants will be found in Part Two of this book, together with additional information on this important subject.
The attention of owners is drawn to the fact that the use of lubricants other than those recommended, could in certain circumstances affect the settlement of claims put forward under the terms of the Company's guarantee.

Bonnet lock control (40) (41)
When closed the bonnet is automatically locked and can only be opened by releasing the bonnet lock control located under the parcel shelf at the right-hand side.
To open the bonnet pull the lock control; this releases the catch above the radiator grille and allows the bonnet to open slightly. The safety catch under the bonnet to the left of the motif must be pressed up to allow the bonnet to be lifted to the fully open position.

Bonnet lock control

The bonnet is spring balanced and self-supporting when open. Two under-bonnet lamps are fitted on Coupé models, which automatically light up when the bonnet is opened. Close by pulling down and pressing firmly into position.

Door Handles and Locks

All Models
To open a door from the outside, grasp the handle and press the release button with the thumb; a catch incorporated in the check strap retains the door in the fully open position.

Front Doors, all models
Both front doors may be locked from the outside, using the ignition key or alternatively either front door can be locked from the inside as follows.

Saloon models
With the door closed, push the interior handle forward; it will spring back to the original position, but the movement of the handle makes the outside push button inoperative, thus preventing the door from being opened from the outside.

It is also possible to lock the doors from the outside without the key by pushing the interior handle forward and then closing the door with the exterior push button depressed. Make sure both doors are not locked in this way if the ignition key is still in the car.

Coupé models
With the door closed, press down the sill button; this renders the outside button inoperative, thus preventing the door from being opened from the outside.

Sill button, Coupe models

Coupé models
It is also possible to lock the front doors from the outside without the key by pressing down the sill button7 and then closing the door with the exterior push button depressed. Make sure both doors are not blocked in this way if the ignition key is still in the car.

If the door fails to shut at the first attempt and remains in the safety position, depress the exterior release button without puffing the handle.

Rear Doors
Saloon models
The rear doors are locked by pushing the interior handle forward until a 'click' is felt, either before or after they are shut.
A safety locking device is incorporated in each rear door lock, to serve as an extra precaution against the doors being opened accidentally. It is operated by rotating the left-hand side interior handle escutcheon in an anti-clockwise direction. When thus locked, the door can be opened only from the outside.

Safety device, rear doors, saloon mdels. A: Escutcheon

The safety device must be set at the 'off' position before the door can be locked in the normal way, using the interior handle.
Coupé models
The rear doors are locked by pressing down the sill buttons, which locks the inner handles, and providing also additional safety against the doors being opened accidentally.
To restore the normal action of the interior and exterior door handles pull up the sill buttons.

If the door fails to shut at the first attempt and remains in the safety position, depress the exterior release button without pulling the handle.

Adjustable front arm rests
The side arm rests fitted to the front doors are adjustable to suit individual requirements; to adjust the armrest lift up centre flap and slide armrest up or down as required. Release flap to lock.

Adjustable front arm rest

Sun visors
The padded ~visors can be used either to reduce sun glare through the windscreen, or through the side windows by pivoting to the side.
A mirror is fitted to the back of the passenger's visor.

Sun visor

Front seat adjustment
The fore-and-aft position of the front seat is readily adjusted by pulling to the right the lever of the centre of the seat base and moving the seat into the most convenient position.
Further adjustment for height and rake can be obtained by repositioning the securing bolts at the base of the seat.

Seat adjustment, Saloon models

Fully adjustable front bucket seats are standard on Coupé models. They are available as optional equipment on Saloon models.

Fully adjustable front bucket seat

To adjust the rake of the squab, seat fully upwards. Push squab forward until the correct position
The fore-and-aft movement of these bucket seats is readily adjusted by pulling upwards the lever at the inside front corner of the seat base, and moving the seat into the required position.
lift lever on the outside of the backwards or allow to come is obtained and release lever.

The seat height is easily adjustable by turning the handle at the centre of the seat base clockwise or anti-clockwise until the required height is obtained.

Luggage boot
To open the luggage boot lift the handle and raise the lid, which will automatically remain in the open position. The lid can be locked in the closed position; this action also prevents the spare wheel operating screw being tampered with. When the side lights are on, the lamp in the boot lid automatically lights up when the lid is opened.

Luggage boot handle

Tool stowage (24) (23)
Small tools are carried in a sliding tray under the front parcel shelf. There is no stop on the tray and it can be pulled straight out.

Tool tray

The lifting jack, wheel brace, starting handle, tyre pump and hub cover removal tool are mounted on a board in the luggage boot on the left-hand side, underneath a trimmed flap.

Tool stowage

Spare wheel
The spare wheel is stowed in a separate compartment below the luggage boot floor.
To remove proceed as follows
1. Open the luggage boot lid.
2. Push locking spring to one side and, with the wheel brace, turn the hexagon-headed screw anti-clockwise, so lowering the spare wheel retainer beneath the luggage boot.
3. When the retainer has been lowered to its fullest extent the spare wheel can be withdrawn.

Spare wheel retaining screw

To replace the spare wheel:-
4. Slide the spare wheel fully home into the retainer.
5. Ensure that the valve is directly under the hole in the floor, to enable the tyre pressure to be checked without removing the wheel.
6. With the wheel brace, turn the hexagon-headed screw clockwise until the retainer is completely closed, push locking spring into one of the slots in the hexagon-headed screw.

Spare wheel valve in correct position

Jacking the car
The jacking system incorporated in this car enables the jack to be placed in position with a minimum of effort, without any necessity to get underneath the car.
Four tubular jacking brackets are fitted under the body lower rail, behind the front wheels and just in front of the rear wheels.
To raise one corner of the car:-
1. Remove the rubber dust excluder from the appropriate jacking point.
2. Fit the pivoted extension on the jack well home into the bracket. This extension can be lowered or raised by turning the handle either one way or the other.
3. Turn the handle until the road wheel is clear of the ground.
To lower the car, reverse these operations.

Jacking the car

If it is desired to raise the car with means other than those supplied, suitable jacking points are:
Front: At the jacking pad under the centre of the front chassis cross- member.
Rear: Under the axle casing.

Wheel changing
1. Prise off the hub cover plate, using the special tool provided. The tool should be inserted at the valve position as shown in the illustration.
2. Slacken the five double-ended wheel nuts.
3. Jack up the corner of the car.
4. Remove the nuts and gently withdraw the wheel over the studs.
5. If available, place a drop of oil on the stud threads, to assist in subsequent removal.

6. Fit the new wheel, tighten the nuts as much as possible, then lower the car to the ground and lock the nuts securely.
7. Replace the hub cap.

Removing hub cover plate

It is always preferable to clean the bodywork with water and sponge, using plenty of waier; wherever possible the surface should be freely hosed. After drying with a chamois leather, it should be polished in the usual manner, using any of the good brands of wax car polish.
As an alternative, if the body is only dusty, it can be wiped over with a soft, dry cloth and then polished, but great care must be taken to avoid scratching the surface.
It is well periodically to wash the underside of the car, to prevent mud pockets and the consequent tendency for rust formation.
The use on the roads during frosty weather of salt sometimes in quite strong concentrations, is now being widely practised. Whilst special protection has been provided for the under surfaces of the body etc., due to its highly corrosive nature salt deposited should be washed off as soon as possible by thorough under washing of the car.

Body touch-up paint
The body touch-up pencil supplied is loaded with 8 c.c. of cellulose-base paint. It is suitable for touching up small scratches, etc., and should be used as follows:
1. Thoroughly clean surface to be painted.
2. Shake the container well.
3. Remove cap, tip down and apply.
4. Regulate flow by pressure on brush.
5. Wipe nozzle, container and cap after use and replace cap tightly.

Chromium plate
Chromium cannot rust, but in instances where it is used on ferrous metals, it does not prevent the accumulation of red oxide on the chromium surface.

Although continual polishing is not necessary~ dirt must be removed periodically if the original high polish is to be maintained. Ordinary metal polishes cannot be used, as some of them contain solutions which act as a solvent to chromium.
To clean off mud and dirt, wash with water and dry with a leather.
To remove oxide or tar, use any good brand of polish that has been specially prepared for chromium plate.

Badge bar, optional equipment
An attractive chromium-plated badge bar can be fitted to the front bumper centre bar as shown in the illustration.

Badge bar